gateway应用(1)

admin2024-04-03  0

1 简介

简单理解---业务服务的统一入口,方便实现,服务路由,安全,限流,过滤,黑白名单,证书加密解密,服务降级/熔断,灰度,等等

2 介绍

  1. Predicate(断言):如果请求路径与断言相匹配则进行路由。(路径匹配是常见断言)
  2. Route(路由):路由是构建网关的基本模块,它由ID,目标URI,一系列的断言和过滤器组成,如果断言为true则匹配该路由。
  3. Filter(过滤):指的是Spring框架中GatewayFilter的实例,使用过滤器,路由成功,则可以执行pre Filter  ,服务响应回数据,可以执行 Post Filter。

3 注意事项

3.1

4 基本路由实战

4.1 pom文件

 <parent>
        <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
        <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-parent</artifactId>
        <version>2.1.3.RELEASE</version>
        <relativePath/> <!-- lookup parent from repository -->
    </parent>
    <groupId>com.gateway</groupId>
    <artifactId>gateway</artifactId>
    <version>0.0.1-SNAPSHOT</version>
    <packaging>war</packaging>
    <name>gateway</name>
    <description>Demo project for Spring Boot</description>

    <properties>
        <java.version>1.8</java.version>
        <spring-cloud.version>2.1.3.RELEASE</spring-cloud.version>
    </properties>

    <dependencies>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.projectlombok</groupId>
            <artifactId>lombok</artifactId>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-cloud-starter-gateway</artifactId>
            <version>${spring-cloud.version}</version>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>com.alibaba.cloud</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-cloud-starter-alibaba-nacos-discovery</artifactId>
            <version>${spring-cloud.version}</version>
        </dependency>
    </dependencies>

 配置文件

server:
  port: 80
spring:
  application:
    name: gateway
  cloud:
    nacos:
      discovery:
        server-addr: 127.0.0.1:8848
     # config:
     #   server-addr: localhost:8848 # Nacos 服务器地址
    gateway:
      routes:
        - id: goods-server #路由的ID,没有固定规则但要求唯一,建议配合服务名
          # uri: http://localhost:8001          #匹配后提供服务的路由地址
          uri: lb://goods-server      #匹配后提供服务的路由地址,lb负载
          predicates:
            - Path=/goods/**     # 断言,路径相匹配的进行路由
        - id: order-server
          uri: lb://order-server
          predicates:
            - Path=/order/**
            #- Path=/goods/,/goods/** 多个可以逗号隔开
      enabled: true #开启网关,默认true 如果程序引用了spring-cloud-starter-gateway,但不希望启用网关 设置为false

4.2 测试路由转发

另外一个 goods 服务,直接访问 http://localhost:8080/goods/good/list 即可出现数据

gateway应用(1),第1张

 直接访问gateway服务 http://localhost/goods/good/list 自己就会转发到goods服务上

gateway应用(1),第2张

4.3 StripPrefix

有一种场景,前端会在所有的接口前加一个api。前端请求的路径是 http://localhost/api/goods/good/list  。实际上请求 http://localhost/goods/good/list 怎么办

gateway应用(1),第3张

gateway应用(1),第4张

5 限流

  添加 pom坐标

        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-data-redis-reactive</artifactId>
        </dependency>

注意点:

gateway应用(1),第5张

server:
  port: 80
spring:
  application:
    name: gateway
  cloud:
    nacos:
      discovery:
        server-addr: 127.0.0.1:8848
     # config:
     #   server-addr: localhost:8848 # Nacos 服务器地址
    gateway:
      routes:
        - id: goods-server #路由的ID,没有固定规则但要求唯一,建议配合服务名
          # uri: http://localhost:8001          #匹配后提供服务的路由地址
          uri: lb://goods-server      #匹配后提供服务的路由地址
          predicates:
            - Path=/goods/**     # 断言,路径相匹配的进行路由
          filters:
            - name: RequestRateLimiter
              args:
                #spel表达式 它会去容器查找名称为hostKeyResolver 的Bean。
                key-resolver: '#{@hostKeyResolver}'
                #针对同一个key,允许的每秒请求数,不包括被抛弃的请求。这实际是令牌桶填充率。
                redis-rate-limiter.replenishRate: 1
                #针对同一个key,一秒内允许的最大请求数。这实际是令牌桶可容纳的最大令牌数。若设为0,则拒绝所有请求。
                redis-rate-limiter.burstCapacity: 1
package com.order.config;

import lombok.extern.slf4j.Slf4j;
import org.springframework.cloud.gateway.filter.ratelimit.KeyResolver;
import org.springframework.cloud.gateway.filter.ratelimit.RedisRateLimiter;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Bean;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Configuration;
import reactor.core.publisher.Mono;

import java.util.Objects;

/**
 * @创建人 赵伟
 * @创建时间 2024/3/18
 * @描述
 */
@Slf4j
@Configuration
public class RouteConfig {
/*    @Bean
    public KeyResolver userKeyResolver() {
        return exchange -> Mono.just(
            exchange.getRequest().getQueryParams().getFirst("userId")
            //exchange.getRequest().getHeaders().getFirst("X-Forwarded-For") 基于请求ip的限流
        );
    }*/
/*    *//**
     * 根据 路径 进行限流
     *
     * @return KeyResolver
     *//*
    @Bean
    public KeyResolver pathKeyResolver() {
        return exchange -> Mono.just(Objects.requireNonNull(exchange.getRequest().getPath()).toString());
    }*/
    /**
     * 根据 HostAddress 进行限流
     *
     * @return KeyResolver
     */
    @Bean
    public KeyResolver hostKeyResolver() {
        return exchange -> Mono.just(Objects.requireNonNull(exchange.getRequest().getRemoteAddress()).getHostString());
    }
    /**
     * Redis 令牌桶 限流
     *   这个等同于配置文件中的 redis-rate-limiter.replenishRate,redis-rate-limiter.burstCapacity
     *   同时存在时,加载的是配置文件中的配置
     * @return RedisRateLimiter
     */
    @Bean RedisRateLimiter redisRateLimiter() {
        return new RedisRateLimiter(1, 1);
    }
}

6黑白名单

/**
 * @描述 禁用ip
 */
public class BlackIpFilter implements GlobalFilter, Ordered {
    @Override
    public int getOrder() {
        return 0;
    }
    @Override
    public Mono<Void> filter(ServerWebExchange exchange, GatewayFilterChain chain) {
        ServerHttpRequest request = exchange.getRequest();
        String remoteIp = GatewayUtil.getRemoteIp(request);
        //查询 ip接口-缓存等实现
        if (true) {
            //返回禁用提示码
            exchange.getResponse().setStatusCode(HttpStatus.FORBIDDEN);
            return exchange.getResponse().setComplete();
        }
        return chain.filter(exchange);
    }
}

7 权限或token/续时/传递用户信息/串行/

package com.order.filter;

import cn.hutool.core.collection.CollectionUtil;
import cn.hutool.core.lang.UUID;
import cn.hutool.core.util.ObjectUtil;
import com.alibaba.fastjson.JSON;
import com.alibaba.fastjson.JSONObject;
import com.order.entity.MyUser;
import com.order.utils.GatewayUtil;
import org.apache.commons.lang.StringUtils;
import org.springframework.cloud.gateway.filter.GatewayFilterChain;
import org.springframework.cloud.gateway.filter.GlobalFilter;
import org.springframework.core.Ordered;
import org.springframework.core.io.buffer.DataBuffer;
import org.springframework.data.redis.core.RedisTemplate;
import org.springframework.http.HttpHeaders;
import org.springframework.http.HttpStatus;
import org.springframework.http.server.reactive.ServerHttpRequest;
import org.springframework.http.server.reactive.ServerHttpResponse;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Component;
import org.springframework.util.MultiValueMap;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RequestMethod;
import org.springframework.web.server.ServerWebExchange;
import reactor.core.publisher.Flux;
import reactor.core.publisher.Mono;

import java.net.URI;
import java.nio.charset.StandardCharsets;
import java.util.*;

/**
 * @创建人 赵伟
 * @创建时间 2024/3/20
 * @描述 禁用ip
 */
@Component //需要将实现设置为Spring的组件
public class BlackIpFilter implements GlobalFilter, Ordered {
    /**
     * 顺序执行
     * @return
     */
    @Override
    public int getOrder() {
        return 0;
    }

    @Override
    public Mono<Void> filter(ServerWebExchange exchange, GatewayFilterChain chain) {
        ServerHttpRequest request = exchange.getRequest();
        ServerHttpResponse response = exchange.getResponse();
        //1 ip黑名单
        String remoteIp = GatewayUtil.getRemoteIp(request);
        //查询 ip接口-缓存等实现
        if (false) {
            //返回禁用提示码
            return loseToken(exchange,response);
          //  return exchange.getResponse().setComplete();
        }

        //2 OPTIONS 不允许
        if (request.getMethod().equals(RequestMethod.OPTIONS.name())) {
            //返回禁用提示码
            exchange.getResponse().setStatusCode(HttpStatus.METHOD_NOT_ALLOWED);
            return exchange.getResponse().setComplete();
        }



        //4 忽略的url
        String pass = "/aaa/getToken|/aaa/updatePwd";
        String uri = request.getURI().toString();
        if (isPass(pass, uri)) {
            return chain.filter(exchange);
        }

        //5 校验token
        List<String> tokenList = request.getHeaders().get("token");
        if (CollectionUtil.isEmpty(tokenList)) {
            return loseToken(exchange,response);
        }

        //6 根据token 获取redis用户信息判断是否失效,
        //注意多端系统生成token规则
        String token = tokenList.get(0);
        //自己写逻辑
        MyUser user = queryCacheByToken(token);
        if (ObjectUtil.isNull(user)) {
            return loseToken(exchange,response);
        }

        //7 已经获取到用户了,判断用户状态,是够禁用/用户密码强制多少天修改。 登录接口也要实现,
        boolean forbidden = false;//禁用
        if (forbidden) {
            return loseToken(exchange,response);
        }
        MultiValueMap<String, String> queryParams = exchange.getRequest().getQueryParams();
        //put是覆盖
      //  queryParams.put("userId", Collections.singletonList("123"));
        // add则不会覆盖,而是继续添加
     //   queryParams.add("userId","123");

        //3 设置请求头加串行id
        ServerHttpRequest.Builder mutate = request.mutate();
        //不存在新增,存在即修改
        mutate.header("serialId", UUID.randomUUID().toString());


        //8 赋值用户信息 可用jwt加密 子服务 通过拦截器 在解析,放到ThreadLocal
         //请求头中文乱码
      //  mutate.header("userInfo", String.valueOf(user));
        String s = Base64.getEncoder().encodeToString(String.valueOf(user).getBytes());
        mutate.header("userInfo", s );
        ServerHttpRequest build = mutate.build();
        exchange.mutate().request(build).build();

        //9 token续时
        //刷新token失效时间 是否每次请求都要续时,还是先获取判断小于一定时间在续时
      //  redisTemplate.setExpire(token, 60 * 60 * 24);

        return chain.filter(exchange);
    }

    /**
     * 假的获取缓存用户信息
     * @param token
     * @return
     */
    private MyUser queryCacheByToken(String token) {
        MyUser myUser = new MyUser();
        myUser.setUserId("123");
        myUser.setUserName("小明");
        myUser.setUpdatePasswordTime(new Date());
        return myUser;
    }

    /**
     * 失效token
     * @param exchange
     * @param response1
     * @return
     */
    private Mono<Void> loseToken(ServerWebExchange exchange,ServerHttpResponse response1) {
        // 设置响应的Content-Type头并指定编码为UTF-8
        ServerHttpResponse response = exchange.getResponse();
        response.setStatusCode(HttpStatus.OK);
        response.getHeaders().add("Content-Type","application/json;charset=UTF-8");
        JSONObject responseBody = new JSONObject();
        responseBody.put("result", Boolean.FALSE);
        responseBody.put("msg", "您当前登录状态已失效,请重新登录");
        responseBody.put("status", 400);
        responseBody.put("isSuccess",  Boolean.FALSE);
        String s = JSON.toJSONString(responseBody);
        byte[] bytes = new String(s.getBytes(), StandardCharsets.UTF_8).getBytes(StandardCharsets.UTF_8);
        DataBuffer buffer = exchange.getResponse().bufferFactory().wrap(bytes);
        return  exchange.getResponse().writeWith(Flux.just(buffer));


/*
        JSONObject jsonObject = new JSONObject();
        jsonObject.put("code","401");
        jsonObject.put("message","非法请求");
        byte[] datas = JSON.toJSONString(jsonObject).getBytes(StandardCharsets.UTF_8);
        DataBuffer buffer = response.bufferFactory().wrap(datas);
        response.setStatusCode(HttpStatus.UNAUTHORIZED);
        response.getHeaders().add("Content-Type", "application/json;charset=UTF-8");
        return response.writeWith(Mono.just(buffer));*/


    }

    /**
     * 是否放行的url
     * @param passString
     * @param requestURI
     * @return
     */
    public static boolean isPass(String passString, String requestURI) {
        if (StringUtils.isNotBlank(passString)) {
            String[] split1 = passString.split("\|");
            for (int i = 0; i < split1.length; i++) {
                String s = split1[i];
                if (!StringUtils.isBlank(s) && StringUtils.containsIgnoreCase(requestURI, s)) {
                    return true;
                }
            }
        }
        return false;
    }

}
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